This Week in Chemical History
Week 52: Dec. 24 – 31 (Archive)
- Born in 1745, Benjamin Rush published first American chemistry textbook; signer of the Declaration of Independence.
- Born in 1818, James P. Joule discovered the law of heating of conductors; researcher in mechanical equivalent of heat; discovered that temperature of gas falls when the gas expands without doing work (Joule-Thomson effect).
- Born in 1834, Augustus Vernon-Harcourt invented standard lamp of 10 candlepower using pentane.
- Corning, Inc. incorporated (1936).
- Born in 1642, Isaac Newton, alchemist, mathematician, physicist; discovered law of gravity and nature of light.
- Born in 1761, William Gregor discovered titanium (Ti, 22) in 1791; and analyzed minerals.
- Born in 1876, Adolf Windaus, researcher on steroids; Nobel Prize in Chemistry (1928) "for the services rendered through his research into the constitution of the sterols and their connection with the vitamins."
- Born in 1904, Gerhard Herzberg, researcher on the electronic structure and geometry of molecules and free radicals using spectroscopy; Nobel Prize in Chemistry (1971) "for his contributions to the knowledge of electronic stucture and geometry of molecules, particularly free radicals."
- Born in 1838, Clemens A. Winkler discovered germanium (Ge, 32) in 1886; and analyzed gases.
- Born in 1822, Louis Pasteur, researcher in stereochemistry, optical activity of tartaric acids, and fermentation.
- Born in 1818, Karl R. Fresenius, researcher in qualitative and quantitative analyses.
- Born in 1838, Vladimir V. Markovnikov synthesized cyclobutane and cycloheptane derivatives; Markovnikov's Rule for additions to alkenes.
- Born in 1921, Ernest L. Eliel performs research in organic stereochemistry and conformational analysis.
- Born in 1932, Kary B. Mullis invented polymerase chain reaction (PCR) method for duplicating DNA; Nobel Prize in Chemistry (1993) "for his invention of the polymerase chain reaction (PCR) method;" shared with Michael Smith.
- Lewis H. Sarett synthesized cortisone at Merck, Sharp, & Dohme Research Laboratories (1944).
- Born in 1800, Charles Goodyear invented vulcanization of rubber.
- Born in 1813, Alexander Parks invented xylonite (celluloid); and electroplating inventions.
- Discovery of heavy water, D2O, announced (1931).
- Ductile tungsten for incandescent bulb filaments patented (1913).
- Born in 1881, Colin G. Fink, researcher, developer, industrialist, teacher in electrochemistry.
- Born in 1921, Gilbert Stork is a researcher in alkylation, acylation, and vinyl ring radical cyclization; developed theory of concerted polyene cyclization.